Sport is a social phenomenon that is extremely widespread in the media and thus mobilizes a large number of people, moves national and international economies, involving public and private institutions. It adds several values to consumers and society, such as caring for oneself.
Sport is a body practice that is part of the body culture of movement, its modalities are characterized by competition, universal rules and federations and confederations that organize sports practice at regional, state, federal and world levels. There are numerous sports that can be classified in different ways, depending on their purpose and intention.
The sports modalities can be classified according to the internal logic that is related to the structural organization of the game itself, to the practice that involves motor gestures, the relationship with the opponent, among others.
The division between team and individual sports considers collaborative relationships. In team sports, the collaboration of all teammates is necessary so that a certain level of performance within the competition is possible, such as, for example, futsal, volleyball, baseball, among others. In individual sports, the athlete competes alone and his performance depends only on him.
In sport there will always be disputes between opponents, the opposition relationships configure the way this dispute will be, divided into two categories: the first is the relationship with interaction between opponents, this relationship is defined in this way because the actions of an opponent directly interfere in the the other’s actions, whether or not there is physical contact; the second category is that of relationship without interaction between opponents, in this relationship there is no interference from the action of one opponent over the action of another.
2nd Stage: Conversation wheel and diagnosis of prior knowledge
In this first moment of the class, the students will meet to talk about sports, take up what sport is and try to find similarities between different modalities.
The teacher will be able to make a dynamic start and present sports of his preference, with the help of the material he has available (video, image or simply search the memory together with the class) and ask the students to say similar characteristics and different among the sports presented through observations made. It is important that the teacher does not interfere in the dialogue with the intention of giving ready answers and let the students build the knowledge autonomously. The comments made can be noted on the board so that a collective record can be made, and then the teacher can record it in his / her personal material. In a moment after the development of the content, this question will be taken up and the answers given in that first moment can be compared.
The suggestion is to present two sports of each type, present in the classification of the book mentioned above, which are equivalent to the classification present in the Common National Curriculum Base. For example: swimming and weight lifting (branded sports); skate and rhythmic gymnastics (technical-combinatorial sports); shooting and bocce (precision sports); sumo and fencing (combat sports); baseball and cricket (field sports and bat); squash and volleyball (dividing net or rebound wall sports); water polo and football (invasion sports).
3rd Stage: The classification of sports
At that moment, the teacher can present, in an expository way, the classification of sports. To understand the types of sport it is important to know how to identify within each modality what is necessary to make the victory effective. From this, seven different types of sports were grouped, three within the set of sports without interaction and four within the set of sports with opponent interaction.
Types of Sports
– Set without interaction between opponents
Branded sports : these are sports that consider the comparison between the reach of indices, which can be measured with meters, seconds, kilos, etc. A striking feature of these sports is the breaking of records. Examples: all athletics, speed skating, rowing, cycling, weightlifting, swimming, etc.
Technical-combinatorial sports : these are sports that are compared to aesthetic beauty and the degree of difficulty of movements performed by athletes, according to standards or criteria established in the rules of each modality. Examples: all types of gymnastics (acrobatic, sports aerobics, artistic, rhythmic, trampoline), figure skating, synchronized swimming, diving, skateboarding, slackline, surfing, etc.
Precision sports : in these sports, the performance of hitting a static or moving target with an object is compared. Aim is the most important skill in these sports. Examples: bocce ball, croquet, curling, golf, snooker, archery, sport shooting, etc.
– Set with interaction between opponents
Combat sports : these sports are always individual and have as their central objective to beat the opponent through touches, imbalances, immobilizations, exclusion of a certain space, bruises, combining attack and defense actions. Example: boxing, fencing, jiu-jitsu, judo, karate, sumo, taekwondo, etc.
Field and putter sports : these are sports in which the game’s strategy to score requires the act of hitting the ball as far as possible and trying to cover as many bases as possible. In these modalities, the teams alternate between attack and defense and, at the beginning of the game, the team that is defending always starts with possession of the ball so that the dynamics of the game are possible. Example: baseball, brännboll, cricket, lapta, pesapallo, rounders, softball.
Sports with dividing net or rebound wall: these are the modalities in which the main objective is to throw, hit or throw the ball or object of the same function to the opponent’s court, over a net or hitting against a wall, making it difficult to intercept the opponent’s defense so that the ball or object touches the ground and the point is computed. We can cite volleyball, beach volleyball, tennis, badminton, paddle, shuttlecock, shuttlecock, sepaktakraw, ringo, ringtennis as examples of dividing net. And as examples of sports with a rebound wall, Basque ball, racquetball, squash, etc.
Invasion sports: for the competition of these sports there are two teams that have a goal to be defended and the opponent’s goal to be invaded and attacked, in order to compute points. The transition from attack to defense happens all the time. Maintaining possession of the ball is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the attack and, at that moment, the defense must position itself in the most appropriate way to retake possession of the ball and start to attack. The goals to be defended and / or attacked are always positioned on the bottom lines of the fields or rectangular courts, characteristic of these sports. Example: basketball, korfball, floorball, frisbee, football, futsal, football, handball, grass hockey, lacrosse, water polo, rugby, etc.
4th Stage: Practice
In order to provide procedural understanding of the content worked on, the teacher may suggest experimenting with a modality for each type of sport. This experimentation can be done through a small circuit in which each station represents a type of sport. Here, it is important to emphasize that the experience will not be the sport itself, due to the characteristics of what is defined as sport and the necessary adaptation so that activities can take place in the school environment.
The circuit can be divided so that, every 5 or 7 minutes, people change stations. The distribution of people will depend on the number of students per class. We suggest that you have at least four people per season. If possible, it would be ideal for some people to play the role of judge at each station, computing points, checking compliance with the rules and organizing the games. This detail highlights a striking characteristic of the sport and encourages the autonomy of the practice in young people, in addition to favoring the circulation of the teacher between the seasons, in order to give greater support to those who need it. The intention is that everyone passes at least once a season and the functions of referees (as) are rotated between people.
The circuit can be organized on the court or somewhere with more space. Cones, strings or ribbons can assist in the demarcation of spaces. Before the start of the circuit, the teacher can go through each station together with the class, demonstrating what will happen in the spaces.
Organized in seven stations, the circuit may have reduced games of:
1 – Futsal: it can be in a reduced space, but it is important that they have two teams, two goals and at least one teammate and one opponent (a) between the players to contemplate the characteristics of invasion sports.
2 – Volleyball: it can be in a small space, but it is important that they have two teams, a dividing net and at least one teammate and one opponent between the players ) to contemplate the characteristics of dividing net or rebound wall sports.
3 – Long jump: in a reduced space, three jump batteries can be made for each participant. The one who has the biggest jump among attempts wins.
4 – Club or bets: configured by the game of bets or common club, it is demarcated by a rectangular space for the dispute between pairs that will try to cross the club more times to score more points in the limited time.
5 – Squatting fight: the game takes place between two people, both are squatting, one facing the other, hand in hand. The objective is to make the opponent (a) get out of this position (making it touch, besides the feet, some other part of the body on the floor or extending the knee) to compute a point. At the end of the suggested time, the number of points for each person is computed.
6 – Bocce: if there is no proper boules material, the game can be adapted with small balls, like sock balls. It is played individually and, for its development, a ball is thrown in the game space, the players will have their own balls each and the objective is to play the balls and compare who can play the closest to that first ball that was played by an impartial person.
7 – Rhythmic gymnastics with hula hoops: in this space, people will make a small presentation, one at a time, of the maneuvers they manage to do with the hula hoop, so that, in the end, they are judged and whoever wins through criteria established in groups. Before starting the presentations, people will have time to get to know simple maneuvers and train until the moment of the presentation.
5th Step: Closing the topic – conversation wheel
To conclude the theme, the teacher may gather the group in a circle to talk about what was taught. As a form of evaluation, at that moment, you can present some sports again, as at the beginning of the theme, and may even be the same, and ask, again, to say similarities and differences between each one, in an attempt to group them. Regarding these classifications, the logic of how sports work allows us to realize that many sports that look completely different, in fact, have many similarities and the opposite is also true. This classification system made it possible to set up a “sports map”, which facilitates the visualization and understanding of the “common elements among the different practices, to understand in a global way how to define who wins or loses a race or game,
Finally, the teacher may ask the students to report how the experience was for each one regarding the content worked on, from the lecture to the practical experience, as well as to put their perception on these moments.